Citing Your Research

Although there is no standard for citation in art and art history writing, Chicago style is most commonly used. So why cite sources? When utilizing or referencing anyone else’s intellectual material, proper citations are the best way to avoid plagiarism. Intellectual material should be accredited to its original thinker. Keep in mind that not everything needs to be cited during this process. If something is considered general knowledge to the audience to whom you are writing (Leonardo Da Vinci painted the Mona Lisa), the information does not need to be cited. If the information is a more specific claim that supports your argument (such as the Mona Lisa is said to be a portrait of Lisa Gherardini), it needs to be properly cited. Chicago style can either be done in footnotes or with in-text citations and a bibliography.

The format for footnotes or endnotes:

1.  Contributors’ Name, “Title of Resource,” Publishing Organization/ Web Site Name in Italics, last edited date, website.


Name, Contributer 1, Contributer 2 Name, and Contributor 3. “Title of Resource” Publishing Organization/ Website in italics. Last Edited Date.

In-text Citation:

(Contributors’ Surnames, year of publication, page or section number when available)

There is additional information for how to properly cite sources available on the following websites. Keep in mind that if you use sites that automatically cite information for you, such as EasyBib or Zotero, this information is not always guaranteed to be correctly formatted. Always make sure to double check these sources before submitting your bibliography.

Additional Resources:

UVM Libraries (new tab)
Purdue Owl (new tab)