Structure of Statistical Reports

I. Title

  • Every report needs a short, informative title.
  • Usually found on a separate title page that also includes author’s name, address/department, and date.

 II. Summary/Abstract

  • A brief summary that tells the reader what the report is about and if it is worth reading.
  • It contains an outline of the problem, what you have done, and your conclusions.
  • No more than half a page.

III. Introduction

  • Describe the context and background of the study.
  • Describe what data is available and the manner and purpose in which they were collected.
  • Explain the aims of the investigation.
  • No more than two pages.

IV. Methods

  • Describe in detail the precise mathematical/statistical tools and techniques used for the data analysis and the manner in which they lead to the results.
  • Define all mathematical notation clearly.
  • The reader should be able to repeat the study on the basis of your report, so the analysis needs to be described sufficiently clearly and carefully.

V. Results

  • Give the main results.
  • Subsidiary results can be included if they do not detract from the flow of presentation and main results.

VI. Conclusions

  • Include deductions from results.
  • Report conclusion in the context of the experiment where the data came from.
  • Should be expressed in a way that can be understood by a non-statistician and should make sense even if the reader of the report had omitted reading the middle section on the methods and results.

VII. General Discussion

  • Relate findings to previous investigations.
  • Discuss to what extent the original aim was successfully achieved. If it was not achieved, how might things have been done differently?
  • Provide any reservations about the data.

VIII. References

  • Citation of any books or journal articles that you referred to for research.
  • Style of citation varies (refer to citation tab)

IX. Appendix

Anything that does not fit naturally into the main body of the report and cannot be reasonably omitted (more data, pictures, diagrams, etc).